Det känns verkligt roligt att få dela med mig av allt som händer i Poltava till SMB:s medlemmar, säger överstelöjtnant Oleg Bezverknii glatt. Det är den 26 juli 2009 och Oleg är på besök i Sverige, bl.a. för arkivstudier vid Krigsarkivet. Oleg har sedan mer än tio år tillbaka varit SMB:s kontaktperson i Poltava och många av oss som rest till Poltava har träffat honom. Han har tidigare varit lärare vid Militärhögskolan i Poltava, men är sedan ett par år pensionerad och arbetar vid Lantbrukshögskolan i samma stad.
Ett resultat av Olegs Sverigebesök i juli 2009 är att Oleg startar en Poltavablogg på SMB:s webbsajt. Här meddelas såväl reflektioner över stora nordiska kriget och slaget vid Poltava som nyheter om vad som händer i den ukrainska provinshuvudstaden Poltava.
jag hoppas att bloggen kommer att bli ett litet inslag i arbetet med att stärka banden mellan Sverige och Ukraina, men framför allt vill jag öppna ett fönster till en del av Europa som få svenskar känner till, säger Oleg.
Bloggen skrivs på engelska, som är det främmande språk vid sidan av ryskan) som Oleg behärskar.
Führerhauptquartier Werwolf was the codename
used for one of Adolf Hitler's World War II Eastern Front military headquarters
located in a pine forest about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of Vinnitsa in the central Ukraine that was used between 1942
and 1943. It was one of a number of Führer Headquarters throughout Europe, and the most easterly ever used by Hitler in
person. The name is derived from Werwolf, which is German for werewolf. The
naming scheme is in accord with other code-names given to Führerhauptquartiere
during the Second World War, such as Wolfsschanze. Several were named for
Hitler himself, whose nickname was Wolf, an old German form of Adolf.
The complex was located in a pine forest between
the villages of Stryzhavka and Kolo-Mikhailovka on the Kiev highway. It was built between December
1941 and June 1942 under top secret conditions. The Wehrmacht had its regional
headquarters in Vinnytsia, and the Luftwaffe had a strong presence at their
airbase in Kalinovka, about 20
km away. Hitler's accommodation at Werwolf consisted of
a modest log cabin built around a private courtyard with its own concrete
bunker. The rest of the complex consisted of about 20 wooden cottages and
barracks and up to three "B" class bunkers, surrounded by ring of
barbed wire and ground defensive positions connected by underground tunnels. A
couple of observation points were set up on platforms in the oak trees
surrounding the pine forest. The area was surrounded by a defensive strip of
bunkers, anti-aircraft guns and tanks, as well as anti-tank ditches and
minefields. There was a tea house, a barber shop, a bathhouse, a sauna, a
cinema and even an open swimming pool for the inhabitants' use. Although this
pool was primarily intended for Hitler, he never once swam in it. The facility
also contained a large vegetable garden organised by the German horticultural
company Zeidenspiner to provide Hitler with a secure supply of food. Two
artesian wells supplied the site with water, and the site had its own power
generation facilities. The bunkers were constructed by Organisation Todt using
local Ukrainian workers, forced labour but mainly Russian prisoners of war.
Many of the workers were subsequently murdered to maintain secrecy of the site.
During his Eastern campaign, Adolf Hitler lived mainly at FHQ Wolfsschanze
(near Rastenburg, Poland). He stayed at FHQ Werwolf
only three times:
16 July to 30 October 1942.
19 February to 13 March 1943.
27 August to 15 September 1943.
Plans in Ukraine to open a museum at the
ruins of a bunker used by Hitler during World War II have provoked concerns it
could become a shrine for neo-Nazis. The decision by local authorities in the centrally
located city of Vinnitsa to turn the site of the
Wehrwolf bunker into a tourist attraction has caused so much controversy that
President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych requested on a recent visit to Vinnitsa that the matter
be settled in a local referendum. Originally, the museum had been due to open
in May 2012 to coincide with the commemoration of victory over the Nazis. But
communist and socialist party activists opposed the idea, arguing that the
creation of such a museum would be tantamount to spreading Nazi propaganda.
This shot of me and my grandson Kirill was taken in
2012 at the entrance to the Museum of Stasi in Leipzig.
The Ministry for State Security (German:Ministerium für Staatssicherheit), commonly known as the Stasi, was the
official state security service of the German Democratic Republic or GDR
(informally known as East
Germany). It has been described as one of
the most effective and repressive intelligence and secret police agencies in
The Stasi was headquartered in East Berlin, with an extensive complex in
Berlin-Lichtenberg and several smaller facilities throughout the city. The
Stasi motto was "Schild und Schwert der Partei" (Shield and Sword of
the Party), that is the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany. Although Stasi
was superficially granted independence in 1957, until 1990 the KGB continued to
maintain liaison officers in all eight main Stasi directorates, each with his
own office inside the Stasi's Berlin compound,
and in each of the fifteen Stasi district headquarters around East Germany, including Leipzig. Collaboration was so close that the
KGB invited the Stasi to establish operational bases in Moscow
to monitor visiting East German tourists. In 1978 KGB officers in East
Germany were granted the same rights and powers they
enjoyed in the Soviet Union.
glimpse of life in Leipzig during the Cold War, many
tourists visit the Stasi
Museum, which documents
the work of the secret service in the former GDR. Set in an original Stasi
administration office, the museum gives fascinating and chilling insights into
the function, methods and history of the secret service; you can see original
surveillance equipment, police documents, letters, photos, a prison cell, and even
an odor archive of suspects (yellow napkins in a glass jars).